The CBD cannabinoid or cannabidiol (C21H30O2) is one of over 140 phytocannabinoids found in the hemp plant so far. It is certainly one of the most important! It was discovered in 1940. Cannabidiol is most commonly found in industrial hemp, from which it is also extracted for our products.
CBD is obtained through extraction, with the most common methods being:
- Alcohol extraction
- Extraction with supercritical CO2
Extraction is a chemical process in which desired molecules are separated from a solid or liquid substance using a solvent (alcohol or CO2) and transferred to another liquid phase.
CBD can be introduced into the body in various ways, the most common of which are:
- Smoking or vaporizing
- Oral ingestion
- Sublingual ingestion when CBD is placed under the tongue (CBD paste, CBD drops) and held there for about 60 seconds, the molecules are directly absorbed into our bloodstream.
- Swallowing CBD (capsules, oil) – in this case, the molecules are absorbed into our digestive system and metabolized in the liver, which sends active substances into our bloodstream after a certain time.
- It can also be administered through suppositories (anal ingestion). The anal mucosa is very effective because absorption is very good, and results are quickly felt.
- Topical application (ointments) – CBD is absorbed through the skin and affects cells beneath the surface of the skin. This reaction occurs without absorption into the bloodstream.
CBD primarily affects the peripheral nervous system and immune system, or cannabinoid receptors CB2, which are mostly found on immune cells. Immune cells circulate throughout our body and brain via our bloodstream. In this way, CB2 receptors can receive information about the state of our skin, liver, digestive system, bones, lungs, cardiovascular system, and transmit it to our endocannabinoid system. CB2 receptors are present throughout the body, including some brain cells. In the brain, their impact is on:
It is a non-psychoactive molecule, the main impact of which is to regulate the balance of our body through the endocannabinoid system. It indirectly binds to cannabinoid receptors and, with the help of enzymes (inhibitors), enables certain bindings.
So far, it is known that CBD inhibits fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which affects the breakdown and weakening of anandamide (a molecule that plays an important role in motivation, mood, etc.). CBD cannabinoid therefore inhibits FAAH, weakens it, and increases the concentration of anandamide.
The CBD cannabinoid binds to G protein-coupled receptors (TRPV-1 and TRPV-1), which are involved in regulating pain, body temperature, and inflammation. In this way, CBD can also participate in these processes.
Due to its non-psychoactive effects, CBD has great potential for positively impacting various conditions and is the subject of many medical studies. It is certainly a natural molecule of the future, which has access to our endocannabinoid system and can participate in many important processes in the body.